19. OSI Model

The Open System Interconnect (OSI) model gives people an understanding of networking by layer.

The physical layer is all about getting data to your system via wired or wireless connections. This deals with bits of data.

The data link layer is where your local area network settings and media access control. MAC detects collision traffic. This deals with frames of data.

The network layer is where your IP and routers are used. IP is a connectionless protocol. This deals with packets of data.

The transport layer looks at flow controls, putting packets in order,and maintaining a virtual circuit. This deals with segments or datagrams.

The session layer establishes, maintains, and terminates communication between applications.

The presentation layer provides independence from data representation by translating between application and network formats.

The application layer manages user services.

An example of what is happening at each layer would be frames converted into bits (Layer 1). Packets converted into frames (Layer 2). Segments converted into datagrams/packets (Layer 3). Data converted into segments (Layer 4). Data created by the user (Layer 5-7).

An IPv4 address is 32 bits and is represented by 4 bytes separated by a dot 172.16.45.220. It is separated in two sections: Network 172.16 and Host 45.220.

Subnetting are subdivisions of a network created for performance and security and makes networks easier to manage. It is used to identify the portion of the address that belongs to the network versus the portion belonging to the host.

There are two types of addresses, public and private. Public addresses can be routed through internet and are assigned by regional internet registries. Private addresses cannot be routed through internet but can be used on a private network.

IPv6 is the latest version of IP addressing and extends addresses to 128 bits. It includes added security for authentication and integrity. It also has built-in multicast and new anycast type.

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